Cost Accounting Principles & Examples What is Cost Accounting? Video & Lesson Transcript

Cost Accounting Principles & Examples What is Cost Accounting? Video & Lesson Transcript

cost accounting

This Standard requires that, for purposes of cost measurement, contractors establish and adhere to policies with respect to capitalization of tangible assets which satisfy criteria set forth herein. Normally, cost measurements are based on the concept of enterprise continuity; this concept implies that major asset acquisitions will be capitalized, so that the cost applicable to current and future accounting periods can be allocated to cost objectives of those periods. A capitalization policy in accordance with this Standard will facilitate measurement of costs consistently over time. Contractor normally allocates all travel as an indirect cost and previously disclosed this accounting practice to the Government. For purposes of a new proposal, contractor intends to allocate the travel costs of personnel whose time is accounted for as direct labor directly to the contract. Since travel costs of personnel whose time is accounted for as direct labor working on other contracts are costs which are incurred for the same purpose, these costs may no longer be included within indirect cost pools for purposes of allocation to any covered Government contract.

In accordance with its written policy, the contractor establishes a material inventory record for electronic tube “W,” and allocates the cost of units issued to the existing Government contract by the FIFO method. Contractor “A” has one contract which requires two custom-ordered, high-value, airborne cameras. The contractor’s established policy is to order such special items specifically identified to a contract as the need arises and to charge them directly to the contract. Another contract is received which requires three more of these cameras, which the contractor purchases at a unit cost which differs from the unit cost of the first two cameras ordered. When the purchase orders were placed, the contractor identified the specific contracts on which the cameras being purchased were to be used. Although these cameras are identical, the actual cost of each camera is charged to the contract for which it was acquired without establishing a material inventory record.

Elements of Cost Accounting

If amortization of an unfunded actuarial liability has begun prior to the date this Standard first becomes applicable to a contractor, no change in the amortization period is required by this Standard. Funded pension cost means the portion of pension cost for a current or prior period that has been paid to a funding agency. Material inventory record means any record used for the accumulation of actual or standard costs of a category of material recorded as an asset for subsequent cost allocation to one or more cost objectives. Production not specifically identified with contracts or customer orders under production or work orders existing prior to the date on which a business unit must first allocate its costs in compliance with this Standard and which are limited in time or quantity. Business Unit C has accounted for and allocated IR&D and B&P costs in a cost pool separate and apart from the G&A expense pool.

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Alternative Allocation Process – As an alternative to the above allocation process all the undistributed assets for one or more service centers or similar intermediate cost objectives may be allocated to the G&A expense pool. Consequently, the cost of money for these undistributed assets will be distributed to the final cost objectives on the same basis that is used to allocate G&A expense. If the data specified in paragraph of this subsection are not readily determinable for certain prior periods, the market value of the assets of the pension plan shall be allocated to the segment as of the earliest date such data are available. Such allocation shall be based on the ratio of the actuarial accrued liability of the segment to the plan as a whole, determined in a manner consistent with the immediate gain actuarial cost method or methods used to compute pension cost.

404 Capitalization of tangible assets.

A single element base may not produce equitable results where other measures of activity are also significant in relation to total activity. A single element base is inappropriate where it is an insignificant part of the total cost of some of the final cost objectives. A facilities capital cost of money factor shall be determined for each indirect cost pool to which a significant amount of facilities capital has been allocated and which is used to allocate indirect costs to final cost objectives. After the initial allocation of assets, the contractor shall maintain a record of the portion of subsequent contributions, permitted unfunded accruals, income, benefit payments, and expenses attributable to the segment, and paid from the assets of the pension plan.

cost accounting

The cost of the equipment constitutes a significant part of the contract cost. A single element cost input base; e.g., direct labor hours or direct labor dollars, which represents the total activity of a business unit may be used to allocate the G&A expense pool where it produces equitable results.

Which Types of Costs Go Into Cost Accounting?

The method of computation used for any inventory costing method selected pursuant to the provisions of this Standard shall be consistently followed. Except as provided in paragraphs and of this subsection, the cost of a category of materials shall be accounted for in material inventory records. Business Unit E should apply the G&A expense rate of Period 1 to those units of Item Z issued during Period 1 and may apply the rate of Period 2 to the units issued in Period 2. Business unit means any segment of an organization, or an entire business organization cost accounting which is not divided into segments. The contracting parties may account for gains and losses arising from mass or extraordinary dispositions in a manner which will result in treatment equitable to all parties. Changes in expected economic usefulness, such as changes in expected technical or economic obsolescence of the asset , or of the product or service produced. Where that group of workers, in the performance of their respective functions, forms an integral team (in this case, a labor-rate standard shall be set for each integral team).

Who is called management accountant?

Management accountants are risk managers, budgeters, planners, strategists, and decision-makers. They do the work that helps the company's owner, manager, or board of directors make decisions.